What is obesity?
The definition of obesity is the result of the imbalance of energy intake and energy output. It leads to several chronic diseases and associated with an increased mortality rate.
Overweight is heavier than the normal range of body weight for height, while obesity is excessive body fat. An average weight adult person contains about 25-30 billion fat cells. A moderately obese adult has nearly 60-100 billion. An extremely obese person contains about 200 billion fat cells. Overweight and obesity ranges are determined by using body mass index (BMI). BMI is the weight (kg) divided by height (m)2.
|30-34.9||Obesity class -1|
|40 and above||Obesity class-3|
Factors Affecting Obesity
- Psychological Factors
- Physiological Factors
- Other Factors
Certain psychological factors are related to adolescence obesity:
- Developmental Obesity
- Body Image
- Associated Psychological Factors
1. Developmental Obesity:
This results from psychological factors within the family. This is the eating disorder that starts from the childhood. The family’s attitude and behavior act as a key cause of obesity. Because eating habits and patterns in a child develop from his/her family. This obesity then further resists to normal development and as a result, this leads to an increase of body weight.
2. Body Image:
Body image disturbance is most common in overweight teenagers. The type and duration of disturbance depend upon the extent to which the person has been heavy, the amount of extra weight carried, gender, and the life situation surrounding the individual’s unique development.
3. Other Psychological Disorders:
In some adolescence, obesity may be associated with severe psychiatric disorders. For example, some depressed children eat in the irregular patterns due to lack of control feeling of fullness, binge, feeling of sadness, and anxiety.
Obese teenagers experience passive interactions with others. This response further increases weight problems due to social isolation, lack of exercise, and disturbed patterns of eating and family interaction.
Following physiologic factors are causing agents for obesity, in certain individuals:
- Inheritance: Certain inherited biochemical, morphologic, and histological features bring up excessive storage of energy as fat.
- Hypothyroidism: This leads to a slow down of metabolic rate, as a result, less amount of energy is used so extra energy is stored as fat in the body.
- Sodium Pump Activity: In obese individuals due to less activity of the cell, it decreases energy usage, so more energy available for storage.
- Menopause: leads to an increase of 20% body fat mass and waist-to-hip ratio.
- Age: After 25, basal metabolic rate slows down so, it results in accumulation of fat in the body.
- Insulin resistance: insulin resistance reduces blood glucose level go back to normal so, this excessive insulin leads the body to produce fat, as a result, tends to maintain an obese state.
- Adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity: due to increased activity of this enzyme, enhancing the synthesis of adipose tissue.
- Adipocyte hypertrophy: fat cells enlarge when energy is available for storage.
- Sedentary lifestyle: lack of physical activity a small amount of energy is consumed and storage rate increase.
- Bad eating habits: excessive consumption of fast and junk foods and low consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Availability: due to lack of availability of fresh fruits and vegetables as in remote areas.
- Socioeconomic status: due to the lack of affordability of fresh foods move towards low-cost fatty foods.
- Time: due to scarcity of time, people prefer to eat outdoors instead to prepare meals at home.
Complications Associated to Obesity:
Obesity leads to:
- Increase mortality rate
- Increase risk of hypertension, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, lipid disorder, type 2 diabetes, gout, infertility, gallbladder disease, menstrual irregularities
- Other complications include osteoarthritis, the problem with anesthesia and surgery, and social discrimination
MNT for Obesity:
A well balanced, low caloric, high fat, slightly high protein and high fiber diet is recommended for weight loss.
How quickly should you lose weight?
We should not lose weight quickly. We can follow weight loss meal plan to weight loss. Healthy weight loss means losing weight gradually and steadily (1-2 pounds /week). It requires a completely changed lifestyle. Losing weight is not a big deal; once you decide and get ready to start you have to move on step by step.
Benefits of gradually weight loss
- Improvement in blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose level
- Healthy eating habits develop
- Become physically active
- Improvement in physical health, energy level, general mood, and self-esteem
The fastest way to lose weight
Losing weight quickly (5-10 pounds/week) depends upon many factors such as metabolic rate, physical activity, and body composition. But it can cause several problems as well.
It is not sure that you only losing fat, because it is difficult for body to loss large number of fat calories in short duration, this may also include loss of muscle or water
- Imbalance of electrolytes
- Loss of muscles
- Heart rhythms change
- Low blood pressure
- Intolerance of cold
Diet Plan for weight loss
High fiber foods: soluble fiber portion make a gel-like structure that reduces the speed of food motility through GIT, gives a feeling of fullness, reduces the absorption of glucose, and remove cholesterol from the body. It helps to reduce belly fat. Sources of soluble fiber are:
Chia seed, flaxseed, avocado, legumes, oat bran, citrus fruit, berries, and apple
High protein diet:
Protein gives the feeling of fullness and reduces cravings by, releasing satiety hormones GLP-1, peptide YY, and cholecystokinin and also reduce hunger hormone Ghrelin. In addition, its digestion and metabolism also burn calories, which are known as the thermic effect of food (TEF). TEF of protein can be helpful in reducing weight. For this, we need to use the following Sources…
Egg, meat, fish, dairy products, whey protein, nuts, legumes and lentils
Avoid simple carbs and refined products: these provide more calories and also a source of chronic diseases like diabetes. Such as:
White bread, cakes, pastries, biscuits, cookies, canned fruits, syrups, white sugar, etc
Consume low carbs diet (like Atkins diet): there is no restriction on protein and fat only carbs are reducing to 3-10% of total energy. It decreases the level of triglycerides and also on total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL.
Low caloric diet: in this high carbohydrate (55-60% of total daily energy intake), low in fat (less than 30%), but high fiber and low glycemic index foods are included. This reduces the postprandial insulin level and increases satiety.
contain 75% fat, 20% protein, and 5% carbohydrates. In the absence of abundant glucose, the body uses an alternative source of energy fat so, ketosis occurs. Thus body uses ketones (a by-product of fat) as an alternative source of energy. In addition, the keto diet increases satiety and reduces hunger. But keep in mind, you have to avoid bad fats and highly processed foods. You can consume:
Egg, poultry, meat, full-fat milk, full-fat cheese, nuts and seeds, healthy fats (olive oil, coconut oil, avocado oil), nonstarchy vegetables and fatty fish
Top Ten tips to lose weight
- Drink plenty of water: drink at least 4 glass of water before the next meal
- Drink Chia seed drink: at the empty stomach, 1 tablespoon Chia seed+1 lemon juice+1 tablespoon honey+1.5 glass water
- Eat slowly: give enough time to each meal at least 30 min, enjoy the meal, and not use a mobile phone or TV during mealtime. Eating slowly improve weight-reducing hormones and feeling of full at the right time.
- Drink coffee or tea: speeds up the metabolic system
- Keep a record of eating and weight daily: it makes you alert and conscious about your eating and you can identify the eating-related problems.
- Avoid sugary drinks and beverages: it provides more calories and least nutrients so lead to obesity.
- Replace caloric dense foods to nutrient-dense foods: like consume fresh fruits instead of juices, use whole grain products instead of refined bakery products, replace unhealthy snacks (fast foods, cookies) with healthy snacks (nuts and seeds, green tea, salad).
- Get enough and good quality sleep: disturbance in sleep also leads to gain weight.
- Do some exercise daily: it makes you active and smart, improve your mood, and reduce stress.
- Apple cider vinegar: 2 tablespoon daily helps to reduce belly fat, due to the presence of acetic acid in it. It also reduces appetite.
7 days diet plan for weight loss
|Pre-Breakfast: 6.00-7.00AM 1 glass Chia seed drink|
|Breakfast: 7.00-8.00AM 1 cup Oat meal porridge+1apple+1 egg+1cup tea|
|Snacks:10.00-10.30 AM 1 cup green tea+10 berries|
|Lunch: 12.00-1.00PM 1 brown braed+1cup beans soup+1 cup salad|
|Snacks: 3.00-4.00PM 1cup green tea+ mix nuts (1fist)|
|Dinner:8.00-9.00PM 3oz Steam fish+ 1cup salad|
|Bed time:9.00-10.00 PM 1 glass milk+1 tablespoon olive oil|
|Recommendations: Physical activity 30-40 min 5 days a week|
for further details visit….https://www.longdom.org/nutrition-weight-loss.html